HomeEtherumIntroducing the KZG Ceremony: Ethereum Foundation Blog Announcement

Introducing the KZG Ceremony: Ethereum Foundation Blog Announcement

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The High fees have posed challenges for travelers in the Dark Forests. The Pools of Mem, previously cloudy, have now been clarified through the filter of 1559, revealing that they lack the necessary depth for sustainability. According to legends, DankShard has brought about abundance, with giant Roll-Ups relying on nourishing Data Blobs in expansive fields, each supporting its own fractal nutrient layers. To invoke DankShard, our guides direct us towards a Ceremony, urging all members of the Lands of Ether and beyond to contribute. Each contribution will illuminate the path forward and add a unique element to the collective.

🕯 Overview
The KZG Ceremony is a coordinated public ritual designed to establish a cryptographic foundation for Ethereum’s scaling efforts, such as EIP-4844 (also known as proto-danksharding). Similar events, referred to as “Trusted Setups,” have been used by Zcash to initialize privacy features. In Ethereum’s case, the objective is to support scaling mechanisms. Proto-danksharding requires a new cryptographic scheme called KZG Commitments, which generate a “structured reference string” (SRS) essential for the commitments to function. As long as one participant in the ceremony successfully conceals their secret, the SRS remains secure. The ceremony entails multiple contributors creating and mixing their secrets, with the final output contributing to a future upgrade to scale the Ethereum network.

Source: Vitalik’s blog “How do trusted setups work?” For further insights, Carl Beekhuizen’s Devcon Talk provides both high-level and in-depth explanations. Alternatively, the Resources repository offers additional links.

Why it is important
Participating in the Ceremony holds significance beyond its technical output and the potential for enabling scaling mechanisms. It presents a rare opportunity for the broader Ethereum community to directly contribute to core protocol development. The Ceremony’s credibility and its endurance into the future depend on numerous contributions from diverse sources. As we construct our own infrastructure, we strive to embrace Ethereum’s vision of accessible protocols open to anyone for use or contribution. This engagement embodies collective construction and the preservation of our community ideals, summoning new meaning for a changing world.

How to participate
The Ethereum community can contribute to this crucial infrastructure in four main ways (listed from low to high technical difficulty):

1. Browser interfaces: Create and contribute your own randomness through a preferred browser. Visit ceremony.ethereum.org for information and participation. Beware of phishing or impersonation attempts. Contributions can take place via the hosted interface or on IPFS. Participants must provide an Ethereum address (with at least 4 prior transactions by January 13, 2023) or a Github account to prevent spam contributions.

2. Command line implementations: If comfortable with using a command line, explore CLI implementations to contribute from a local machine.

3. Generate entropy uniquely: Utilize a distinct and creative method to generate randomness. Use this generated randomness in conjunction with the above-mentioned methods to contribute to the ceremony. In case more time for contribution is needed, contact ceremony@ethereum.org. As an example, during the Zcash Sapling ceremony in 2018, Ryan Pierce and Andrew Miller used a geiger counter and an artifact from Chernobyl to generate entropy on an airplane.

Funding opportunities are available. Apply via the provided links.

4. Write your own implementation: Efforts have been made to simplify the process of writing custom implementations for the ceremony. Some developers have accomplished this in a single afternoon. Detailed ceremony specifications are available. For those seeking complete assurance that the secret hasn’t been compromised, consider creating your own BLS12-381 implementation. Only G1 and G2 integer multiplication are necessary, and incorrect contributions will be rejected by the Sequencer without harming the overall ceremony. If additional time for contribution is required, contact ceremony@ethereum.org. Funding opportunities are available. Apply via the provided links.

Timeline
The project commenced development in mid-2022. Explore the complete timeline for detailed information. Key areas of focus include implementing cryptographic components, the Sequencer, and an interface to facilitate browser-based participation. Engaging the wider ecosystem, contributions were made by numerous teams and individuals, including various Ethereum Foundation teams (Protocol Support, Privacy & Scaling Explorations (PSE), Devops, Eth.org, and Research), Worldcoin, and independent contributors (listed below!). The first contribution period spans two months, from Friday the 13th to March 13th, 2023. Following this, a special contribution period will accommodate bespoke implementations and unique entropy generation requiring additional support. Once both contribution periods are concluded, the Sequencer will transition to accepting general contributions until EIP-4844 is ready for a network upgrade. At that point, the Sequencer will cease accepting new contributions and produce its final output. The correctness of this final output will be publicly verified, and individuals are also welcome to verify it using straightforward scripts like the one provided.

FAQs
Here are some commonly asked questions:

1. Is pre-registration necessary to contribute?
No, pre-registration is not required. You only need an Ethereum address that has sent at least 4 transactions before January 13, 2023.

2. How long does participation take?
Participating itself is quick, typically less than a minute. However, the wait time for your turn may vary, as contributors are randomly selected from the lobby.

3. What circumstances could lead to the ceremony breaking?
The ceremony operates under a “1-of-N” trust assumption, meaning that the secrecy of a single participant’s input is sufficient for overall security. Breaking the ceremony would require collaboration among all participants to reveal and combine their secrets, or the existence of bugs in every implementation.

For more FAQs, visit ceremony.ethereum.org.

A special acknowledgment goes to Nico Serrano, Geoff Lamperd, Chiali, and Takamichi Tsutsumi from Privacy & Scaling Explorations, Remco Bloemen, Marcin Kostrzewa, Grzegorz Świrski, and Philipp Sippl from Worldcoin, Rafael Matias and Parithosh Jayanthi from EF DevOps, as well as Kevaundray Wedderburn, Marius Van Der Wijden, Daniel Knopik, Ignacio Hagopian, Antonio Sanso, Paul Wackerow, and many others for their tremendous work in enabling this Ceremony.

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